Lindsay Bywood is Senior Lecturer in Translation Studies at the University of Westminster and teaches translation, audiovisual translation, and project management for translators at postgraduate level. She holds a PhD in subtitling from UCL, an MA in German and Philosophy from the University of Oxford, and an MA in Translation from the University of Salford. Her research centres around the diachronic variation in the subtitling of German films into English, with other research interests in machine translation and post-editing, accessibility, and error handling in the translation industry. Before becoming an academic she worked for many years in the audiovisual translation industry and is now responsible for the postgraduate professional development programme for translators and interpreters. She is a member of the Chartered Institute of Linguists, deputy editor of The Journal of Specialised Translation (JoSTrans), and Vice-President and Director of the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation (ESIST).